Mapping Bits to a Constellation

Figure 2. Bit mapping for QPSK.

Before information can be transmitted using a digital modulation scheme, the information bits have to be mapped to the constellation. Each point in the constellation is known as a symbol, making the full collection of symbols a kind of alphabet of the modulation scheme. For most digital modulation schemes… read more

Submitted on 6 May 2019

What is a Constellation Diagram?

Figure 1. QPSK constellation.

A constellation diagram is a diagram that shows how the information in a digital modulation scheme such as phase shift keying (PSK) is represented in a modulated carrier. This article is a bit of an experiment; instead of introducing the constellation diagram by simply presenting it… read more

Submitted on 25 March 2019

What is an Analytic Signal?

Figure 1. Spectra of cosine (left) and complex exponential (right).

An analytic signal is a signal without negative frequency components. This might seem a strange concept if you’re not used to it, but analytic signals are used in signal processing, for example in modems for telecommunications. Let’s start from… read more

Submitted on 25 February 2019


I’m working on a series of articles on modems. It’ll be a loose collection of posts, and not a true multi-part article such as the one on tomography. Modem technology is not widely known and/or understood, even by a technical audience. However… read more

Submitted on 13 February 2019