Signal Processing

How to Create a Configurable Filter Using a Kaiser Window

Figure 3. Frequency response of a low-pass filter with a Kaiser window; A=60.

This article explains how to create a windowed-sinc filter with a Kaiser (or Kaiser-Bessel) window. The windowed-sinc filters in previous articles typically had two parameters, the cutoff frequency and the transition bandwidth (or rolloff). With a Kaiser window, there is a third input parameter, the ripple. For the specific case of the Kaiser window, the same…

Submitted on 26 December 2016

The Transition Bandwidth of a Filter Depends on the Window Type

Figure 1. Low-pass filter with Blackman window, r=4.0 (filter has 41 taps).

This article contains more detailed information on setting the transition bandwidth (or roll-off) from How to Create a Simple Low-Pass Filter. That article suggest to use, as the filter length N, an odd number close to 4/b, where b is the required transition bandwidth. This is a good basic rule. However, in…

Submitted on 6 December 2016

The Radio Meteor Signal Path from Transmitter to Spectrogram, Part 3

Figure 3. Spectrogram of sampled signal.

This is part three of an article that describes the signal path of a radio meteor. The next step is sampling. At the point of sampling, there is a difference between a real-world BRAMS system and the simulation that produced the illustrations in this series of articles. In the real system…

Submitted on 5 September 2016

The Radio Meteor Signal Path from Transmitter to Spectrogram, Part 2

Figure 1. Combined reflected and directly received signal.

This is part two of an article that describes the signal path of a radio meteor. At the antenna of the receiver, the reflected signal is combined with a (much smaller) directly received signal. At first sight this might seem unimportant, since the amplitude of the direct component is typically much less than…

Submitted on 21 August 2016

The Radio Meteor Signal Path from Transmitter to Spectrogram, Part 1

Figure 1. Overview of the radio meteor signal path.

This is part one of a rather basic article that describes the complete signal path of a radio meteor, from the sinusoidal carrier wave that is initially transmitted, to the spectrogram that is typically used as the final result in the receiving chain. I have presented this material at…

Submitted on 1 August 2016

The Moving Average in the Financial Sector

Figure 4. Impulse (left), step (middle), and frequency (right) responses for Spencer’s 15-point moving average.

When researching what to include in The Moving Average as a Filter and Variations on the Moving Average, I came across a lot of references to applications in the financial sector. This is not my forte, but, just for fun, I gave a few of the moving averages that are used there the same treatment as the filters in…

Submitted on 29 February 2016